April Producer Price Index

KEY DATA: PPI (Final Demand): +0.1%; Ex-Food and Energy: +0.2%; Goods: 0%; Services: +0.1%

IN A NUTSHELL: “Despite the modest increase in wholesale costs, the inexorable rise in inflation remains inexorable.”

WHAT IT MEANS: Inflation pressures are building; there is little doubt about that. What is unclear is how much will price increases accelerate. Costs had been rising fairly sharply at the wholesale level, but that was not the case in April. A large decline in food prices coupled with a modest gain in energy helped limit the rise in producer prices to the smallest increase since December. There was minimal pricing pressure on both goods and services and even excluding the more volatile food and energy, costs rose only moderately. Over the year, the gains in both the headline and core indices decelerated, but remained in the 2.5% range, so we cannot say that inflation pressures have disappeared. Looking at the details, there were few outliers. Prices of vegetables and eggs fell sharply, a major factor in the large drop in food. Otherwise, most of the individual categories posted modest to moderate declines or increases, the majority being declines.

Looking into the future, the April report is not likely to become the norm. Intermediate level producer costs rose sharply for food, energy and core (non-food and energy) measures. That was the case at the crude product level, though food costs were down. Basically, there is building pressure in the pipeline.

MARKETS AND FED POLICY IMPLICATIONS: The inflation pressures we see in all the consumer indices are real. With oil prices above $70/barrel and the ending of the Iran agreement likely to keep prices up, it is hard to see how inflation will moderate anytime soon. The Fed looks at the headline number now, so energy matters. I have made the argument to anyone who will listen that over time, it is the entirety of retail price increases that matter to households. The headline increases in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Personal Consumption Expenditure deflator (PCE) have been persistently above the core increases and that is what consumers pay. The Fed has moved back toward the top line number, which makes sense. Thus, there is every good reason for the FOMC to continue to normalize both rates and the Fed’s balance sheet. Quantitative tightening will continue and is scheduled to accelerate. Rate hikes are not likely to stop unless there is a major crisis. Investors need to factor that into their thinking. Of course, with all the political issues swirling around Washington, lots of fundamental economic considerations are being pushed to the sidelines.

March Job Openings and April Small Business Optimism

KEY DATA: Openings: +472,000; Hires: -86,000; Quits: +136,000/ NFIB: +0.1 point

IN A NUTSHELL: “Businesses are optimistic and looking for workers, it’s just that they don’t seem to be available.”

WHAT IT MEANS: Another day, another set of good numbers. Let’s start with the labor market. The closely followed JOLTS report, which provides data on job openings, hiring, layoffs and quits, indicated that businesses are looking for workers in just about every nook and cranny of the economy. The total number of job openings hit the highest levels since the report was first released in December 2000. There was a decline in durable goods manufacturing unfilled positions, but that may have been due to the surge in hiring that has taken place this year. Openings were up in every region of the nation. My favorite number in this report is the quit rate, which provides some information on the willingness of workers to leave their jobs. For a long time after the end of the Great Recession, people were fearful and refused to leave positions. It looks like the fear is fading as the quit rate continues to rise. A rising churn in the labor market would likely force businesses to raise compensation faster either to retain workers or replace those that have left. We haven’t gotten to the point where the quit rate would signal surge in wages, but it is getting there.

We all like to talk about the importance of the small business sector in driving economic growth and if we are at all correct, then there is good news for the economy. The National Federation of Independent Business’ April survey showed that small business owner confidence remains extremely high. The index may have only edged up over the month, but it “has been higher only 20 times out of the last 433 surveys”. In other words, we are talking about exuberance. Earnings are at record levels, but the lack of qualified workers is also causing compensation costs to rise faster, which is driving up prices. That is, we have both wage and price inflation at the small business level, something that will surely catch the eyes of the Fed members. The best description of this report is the comment made by NFIB Chief Economist Bill Dunkelberg: “There is no question that small business is booming”.

MARKETS AND FED POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Today’s reports contain both good news and bad news for investors and the Fed. They clearly point to a strong economy that is generating profits for businesses of all sizes. But it is also putting greater pressure on wages and prices, which is why we are seeing the steady rise in inflation. For the monetary policymakers, that means the economy can withstand further rate hikes, which may be needed to moderate the building inflationary pressures.  And that is the worry for investors. Large, publicly traded companies are employing most of the tax reductions on stock buybacks, dividend increases and mergers and acquisitions. As of yet, they have not invested heavily in new capital. Unless capital spending picks up, productivity will remain in the doldrums and costs will rise, providing an additional reason for the Fed to continue normalizing rates. How high will interest rates go? It is unclear right now, but there is a very high likelihood they will max out well above what most investors expected as little as six months ago and higher than many still believe will be the top.

April Jobs Report

KEY DATA: Payrolls: +164,000; Private: +168,000; Revisions: +30,000; U-Rate: 3.9%; Wages: +0.1%; Over-Year: +2.6%

IN A NUTSHELL: “The labor market may be tight, but that isn’t doing much for workers, whose wages continue to rise sluggishly.”

WHAT IT MEANS: Has the basic law of supply and demand been repealed for the labor markets or are we using the wrong measures? Businesses added a solid number of new positions in April. While the total was below forecasts, when you add in the upward revisions to February and March, you come out right at consensus. Manufacturing and construction continue to lead the way with outsized increases. Together, they make up about 13% of total payrolls but added 25% of the new positions. It is doubtful that can be sustained for much longer. There were also solid increases in restaurants, warehousing, management firms and health care. Retail, not surprisingly, was weak and state governments cut workers.

 The real eye-opener in this report was the decline in the unemployment to 3.9%, the lowest since December 2000. Only once since January 1970, in April 2000, have we had a lower rate. You have to go back to the late ‘60s to find any extended period where the unemployment rate was lower. That was when the Viet Nam War was raging and many young adults, who have a higher than average unemployment rate, were in the military, not out looking for jobs. Even the so-called real unemployment rate, which adjusts for discouraged workers and those that cannot find full-time work, is below what we saw in the 2000s (when no one complained about its level) and is not that far from the late 1990s low. Thus, we are in uncharted territory here, unless you are willing to go back to the early 1950s, when society and the economy were different and the labor force participation rate was well below the current level.

Despite the appearance of a tight labor market, the average hourly wage ticked up modestly and over the year, it is barely keeping up with inflation. That means spending power is going largely nowhere and that raises questions whether households can sustain their spending. Yes, the tax cut is causing take home pay to rise, but given the distribution of the cuts, it is not going to power a lot of spending at the mid and lower income levels.

MARKETS AND FED POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Job growth in April was right on target. It is unrealistic to expect the large increases we saw early this year to be sustained. There just are not enough workers to fill those positions and the “softening” payroll increases is really not a softening. We are closer to sustainable levels and I expect that businesses will probably add between 150,000 to 175,000 new workers per month over the remainder of the year. That is enough to drop the unemployment rate further. But is it enough to force up wages? First, the hourly wage number may not tell us much. It came into existence in early 2007. We don’t know what is normal, high or low. It is also an average, which doesn’t tell us much since it depends upon the distribution of jobs. That said, we are still not seeing any major compensation increases in either the productivity or employment cost reports. If we really are in a tight labor market, wages should be rising faster. So, either our measures are missing the point or there really isn’t a labor shortage. Or, there is a labor shortage and businesses are willing to do without workers and are lengthening delivery times instead. According to the Institute for Supply Management, manufacturing deliveries have been slowing for 19 months while non-manufacturers have been lengthening their delivery times for 28 months. At what point do customers scream enough? I don’t know, but as long as firms can push out deliveries, the fewer workers they have to hire. Right now, that seems to be working. That doesn’t mean the Fed will not have to tighten. It will, especially if growth accelerates as expected during the second half of the year. The members still think the measures of unemployment mean something.

April Private Sector Jobs and Help Wanted OnLine

KEY DATA: ADP: +204,000; Construction: +27,000/ HWOL: -69,300

IN A NUTSHELL: “Businesses are hiring solidly and they are looking for even more workers.””

WHAT IT MEANS: The latest Fed meeting will end soon but before we get the statement, there are some data to discuss. Since they have to do with one of the Fed’s major concerns, the labor market, it is likely they will be a part of the discussion. Since this is the week of Employment Friday, Wednesday is when we get a snapshot of what private sector hiring may have been. According to ADP, firms were out adding workers at a very solid, if not strong pace in April. The gains were spread fairly evenly across the different sizes of firms, though companies with 50 to 499 workers were the most active. Looking at the specific industries, the need for construction workers remains robust, while health care employees are also in strong demand. The only sector where jobs declined was information services.

The number of want ads posted online faded in April. The Conference Board’s Help Wanted OnLine Index fell, but it has been bouncing around quite a bit lately. That said, the level of want ads is still high enough that we should see solid hiring going forward. There were declines in every region, though the greatest weakness was the Northeast, New York in particular. As for occupations, the demand for computer and mathematics experts continues to soar, while sales people are no longer needed as much. That makes sense since the Internet is not a person-to-person sales vehicle.

MARKETS AND FED POLICY IMPLICATIONS: While the labor market data are important, today is all about the FOMC meeting and the statement that is to be released. The best guess is that the Fed will leave rates alone. Actually, it would be a surprise if anything else were done. The continued strength in hiring has to provide support for the members’ belief that they can continue to raise interest rates without materially affecting the economy. So what we need to watch is the statement and how strong a signal it sends that the next tightening is coming. Most economists, including myself, expect a rate hike at the June 12-13 meeting. If Friday’s jobs report is solid and wage gains continue to accelerate, anything but a hike then would be a shock. In June, we also get the Fed members’ forecasts, which could point to four rather than three increases this year and I think an increase in what may be the terminal rate for this cycle. That would point to four increases, next year as well, which is where I stand.

March Personal Income, Spending and Pending Home Sales

KEY DATA: Disposable Income: +0.3%; Wages: +0.2%; Consumption: +0. 4%; Prices (Over-Year): +2.0%; Excluding Food and Energy (Over-Year): +1.9%/ Pending Sales: +0.4%

IN A NUTSHELL: “Inflation is at the Fed’s target level and it is likely the 2% rate will remain in the rear view mirror for quite some time.”

WHAT IT MEANS: With the battle between interest rates and earnings raging on, the crucial economic numbers are those that tell us about inflation pressures. Today, we saw that the Fed’s preferred measure of consumer costs, the Personal Consumption Expenditure price index may have been flat between February and March, but it rose by 2% over the year. Energy costs are up since March and the Chicago Purchasing Managers report that their prices paid neared a seven-year high in April. We could have a big increase in the April index. Even excluding food and energy, prices are also rising pretty much at the Fed’s target pace.

How much inflation accelerates depends upon the willingness and ability of consumers and businesses to spend. We have yet to see the capital investment boom, but that may come in the second half of the year. As for households, the key is income growth and the March report didn’t tell me that there was a huge increase in spending power. Personal income may have been up solidly, but wages and salaries rose more modestly. Income gains are being bolstered by large increases in dividends.   Most middle and lower income households who receive dividends tend to get them in their retirement accounts, so it doesn’t get spent. And there is only so much that upper-income households spend out of increased income. That is why consumption, which rose solidly in March, is not likely to soar this year.

The National Association of Realtors reported that pending home sales improved modestly in March. Weakness in the Northeast and to a lessor extent in the West offset decent gains in the South and Midwest. Over the year, contract signing activity is down, further indicating that the housing market is not accelerating. Indeed, with mortgage rates rising, don’t expect housing to lead the way going forward.

MARKETS AND FED POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Last year, former Fed Chair Yellen argued that the deceleration in inflation was due to temporary factors. Indeed, inflation had accelerated for two years, reaching 2.2% in February 2017 before easing back. Well, Dr. Yellen was correct in her analysis and we are nearing the high hit last year. Indeed, don’t be surprised if the overall index exceeds that peak when the April or May numbers are released. And don’t be shocked if the rate continues to slowly accelerate. So, if you are still holding onto the belief that the Fed will move only three times this year, you might want to reconsider that stance. That said, I don’t expect inflation to spike. In part, that is due to the continued limited gains in wages and salaries that will restrain consumption. And with mortgage rates likely to continue rising, housing is not likely to pick up much steam. Thus, growth is not likely to accelerate significantly, unless businesses actually start investing really heavily in capital goods. So, investors are now facing a conundrum. Interest rates are likely to continue to rise through the rest of this year and into next. Meanwhile, growth should be solid but probably not robust. Will non-tax-driven earnings be able to sustain strong increases? That is a good, and critical, question.

1st Quarter GDP and Employment Cost Index and April Consumer Sentiment

KEY DATA: GDP: 2.3%; Consumption: +1.1%; Consumer Prices (Quarterly): +2.7%; Over-Year: +1.8%/ ECI (Over-Year): +2.7%; Wages: +2.7%/ Sentiment: -2.6 points

IN A NUTSHELL: “The acceleration in growth from the tax cuts has yet to kick in, but it does look like inflation is rising.”

WHAT IT MEANS: Tax cuts and government spending increases should lead to better overall economic activity, but that was not the case in the first quarter of the year. The economy expanded at a moderate pace that was well below the 2.9% rate posted in the fourth quarter of last year or the 3.3% rate in the third quarter. Solid business investment and a narrowing trade deficit were offset somewhat by soft consumer and government spending. Additions to inventory added to growth and that may be a sign that firms expect conditions to improve going forward. But for me, the story in this report was not the economy: It was inflation. Consumer prices rose sharply in the first quarter and even if you take out food and energy, the increase was still very high. Even though the gain from a year ago has yet to hit the Fed’s target of 2%, another quarter of high price increases similar to that posted in the first quarter will get us there.

Adding to my concern about inflation was the report on first quarter employment costs. The increase over the year was the highest in nearly a decade for both the overall index and for wages and salaries. Of real concern is that the private sector costs are growing faster than the public sector, which means that firms are facing even greater accelerating labor cost pressures.

Consumers were a little less optimistic in April than they had been. The University of Michigan’s Consumer Sentiment Index faded, led by a sharp decline in the perceptions of current conditions. Expectations remained solid, though they have stopped rising. The report indicated that the level of the index was consistent with a 2.7% increase in consumption over the next year. Given the tax cuts, that would be disappointing.

MARKETS AND FED POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Growth decelerated for the second consecutive quarter, not usually a sign of an economy picking up steam. But it was unreasonable to expect the impacts of the tax cuts to show up immediately. Businesses will invest more, though it is not clear how much more, and household spending will improve. But the decelerating growth pattern and the softening in optimism creates doubts about the ability of the economy to post the large gains many used to defend the passage of such a large tax cut. That said, there are questions about the first quarter seasonal adjustments, as the growth rates tend to be the lowest of the year. This was just the initial estimate, which will likely change. So don’t give up hope just yet. If as expected, growth does accelerate from the first quarter moderation, it is likely that inflation will follow suit. By the end of the current quarter, consumer price gains, using almost any index, will likely hit or exceed the Fed’s 2% target. Accelerating inflation would support rate hikes for the rest of the year and sustain the upward trend in market interest rates. No good economy goes unpunished and higher wage and price inflation and increasing interest rates are likely to be with us for quite a while. The earnings vs. interest rate battle is on.

March Durable Goods Orders and Weekly Jobless Claims

KEY DATA: Orders: +2.6%; Excluding Aircraft: +0.1%; Capital Goods: -0.1%/ Claims: -24,000

IN A NUTSHELL: “The surge in capital spending that was supposed to be triggered by the tax cuts has yet to be seen, but it is still early.”

WHAT IT MEANS: Remember how the business tax cuts were supposed to induce massive increases in business investment? Well, that has not happened yet. Durable goods orders rose solidly in March, but chalk that gain up to a surge in civilian aircraft orders. Excluding aircraft, demand for big-ticket items was largely flat. Sharp declines in orders for machinery and computers offset increases in demand for metals and communications equipment. Vehicle orders were up minimally. The most closely watched number in this report is nondefense capital goods orders excluding aircraft and after a solid rise in February, orders fell slightly in March. Even more troubling was that this measure was lower in the first quarter than in the fourth quarter of 2017. It was expected to rise if only because firms were cautious at the end of last year as they waited for the tax bill to actually be passed.

Jobless claims cratered last week to the lowest level since December 1969. To put the number in perspective, the labor force back then was half the sixe it is now. Adjusting for the size of the labor force, we are at record low levels. Put simply, labor markets are extremely tight.

MARKETS AND FED POLICY IMPLICATIONS: It is too early to use one my favorite phrases, “never mind”, when it comes to the impact of the tax cuts on business investment. Just because taxes were reduced and incentives were added to foster more capital spending doesn’t mean businesses were ever going to rush out and invest right away. There may be some off the shelf projects that were green lighted, but in general, spending on major projects is not a quick or easy decision. I have argued that second half growth would show accelerating capital spending and I am sticking to that forecast. That said, it is a little disconcerting to see so little new spending plans announced, especially given all the announcements about stock buy-backs, dividend increases and merger and acquisition attempts. Tomorrow, the initial (called advance) estimate of first quarter growth will be released. Consensus is around 2% and nothing released this week is likely to change most forecasts, including mine, which is 2.6%. Whatever we get could be the low point for the year. But how much faster we grow will depend upon the willingness of businesses to put the tax-induced higher earnings to work for things other than stock price increases. As for consumers, there are no clear signs they are spending like crazy either. The labor markets are drum-tight, but wage gains are still less than needed to cause overall economic growth to surge, especially given the steady rise in inflation. Firms seem to be willing to lengthen delivery times rather than increase wages to attract new workers. At least that is what I frequently hear as I tour the country. Tomorrow’s Employment Cost Index may show signs things are changing. On the investor side, the battle between higher earnings and higher rates continues. But the earnings season will end soon while the rise in rates is likely to continue through the rest of this year and probably next. Can you say “choppy”?

April Consumer Confidence and Philadelphia Fed NonManufacturing Index, March New Home Sales, February Housing Prices

KEY DATA: Confidence: +1.7 points/ Phil. Fed (NonMan.): -3.5 points/ Home Sales: +4%/ Home Prices (Over-Year): +6.3%

IN A NUTSHELL: “The economy seems to be settling into a solid but not spectacular growth pattern.”

WHAT IT MEANS: Consumers are upbeat, earnings are solid and the housing market is decent, so there is little to worry about, right? Yes, though the economy is hardly booming along. Households were more upbeat in April as the Conference Board’s Consumer Confidence Index ticked up after having declined in March. Both the Present Conditions and Expectations Indices improved a touch. Respondents thought jobs were still plentiful, though not as much as they had been. Still, they are confident that there will be more jobs in the future.

The Philadelphia Fed reported that non-manufacturing activity in the Mid-Atlantic region continued to expand solidly in April. That said, the pace of growth was down from March and the index level isn’t that high. There were some warning signs in the report. Hiring is slowing, costs are rising and prices are still going up. Pricing power is not great, but it looks like it is enough for firms to continue pushing through higher prices in the future.

New home sales continued on their upward trend in March despite a halving of sales in the Northeast. I guess people couldn’t make it to building sites in the snow. Sales boomed in the West and that made up for the drop in the Northeast and a moderate falloff in the Midwest. Despite solid sales in February and March, developers are still not going out and building like crazy. The supply of homes for supply is relatively low and that could constrain sales.

The S&P CoreLogic Case Shiller home price index rose solidly in February and the year-over-year gain showed that the price increases continue to accelerate. All of the twenty large cities in the survey posted gains of at least 0.5% over the month.

MARKETS AND FED POLICY IMPLICATIONS: The economy is moving forward, which should surprise no one. It was already in good shape and then Congress passed massive tax cuts and a huge spending bill, so there was little doubt we would have a good year. But no good economy goes unpunished and interest rates continue to rise. The 10-year Treasury note posted a 3-handle for a little while today and while that is still quite low, for many it is a bit of a shock. The rate has increased nearly three-quarters of a percentage point in the last six months and with inflation slowly accelerating and energy costs rising, there is little reason to think it will not continue to move upward. That said, 3% is hardly a high rate, historically speaking. But to the extent that the Fed will consider the fiscal stimulus, rising inflation and increasing rates as signs that the economy is getting a little hot, we should expect the FOMC to continue its rate-normalization process. As for investors, as long s there are strong earnings, the higher interest rates may not matter that much. The good but not great economic data, coupled with the higher rates, are warnings that earnings that are economy-driven, not tax cut-created, may be harder to come by in the future.

March Existing Home Sales and Chicago Fed National Activity Index

KEY DATA: Sales: +1.1%; Over-Year: -1.2%; Prices (Over-Year): +5.8%; Inventory: 3.6 months/ CFNAI: -0.88 point

IN A NUTSHELL: “Given the paucity of houses on the market, home sales are doing about as well as can be expected.”

WHAT IT MEANS: Sometimes sellers are in the driver’s seat and sometimes buyers have the upper hand. Right now, sellers are the kings in the housing market. The National Association of Realtors reported that new home sales rose in March, but minimally. Weather suppressed closings in February in the Northeast and Midwest, but that turned around in March. Still, the level of sales remains restrained and compared to March 2017 was either down or up modestly. The problem remains the lack of homes for sale. Adjusting for the sales rate, there are only 3.6 months of supply. Though that is up a little from what we have seen over the past few months, it is about two years less than desirable. The lack of available homes is not only limiting sales but it is also leading to continued high price increases.

The Chicago Fed’s National Activity Index tanked in March, indicating that economic growth slowed during the month. This moderation in activity is consistent with a variety of other indicators and is pointing to a GDP growth rate for the first quarter that may be quite disappointing.

MARKETS AND FED POLICY IMPLICATIONS: The housing market is in decent shape, but it is not in great shape. It is hard to sell homes that are not on the market and there just are not a lot of people willing to let go. That is a real concern since solid demand and low supply leads to higher prices. Yes, higher prices should induce people to list their homes, but the decision to sell is a lot more complicated than just one of price. You then have to move and that means finding another home to buy or finding a rental unit. And that process is difficult if there are not a lot of options available. On top of that, longer-term rates are rising. The 10-year Treasury note is nearing 3% and mortgage rates are following suit. So, we having rising prices and rising mortgage rates, a combination that creates real concern for realtors. In addition, the expected surge in economic growth that was (and still is) expected from the tax cuts has not yet shown up. Estimates for the first quarter are coming down and are approaching 2%. I am a bit more optimistic, but a little shaky about my 2.6% number. The first estimate of first quarter growth comes out on Friday. For investors, the latest economic reports can only create confusion. In general, earnings have been good, but you have to ask what is real and what is tax-created. And if GDP is lower than expected and inflation higher, the markets may not take the news very well. But that is just an economist talking. At the least, we are likely in for more wild days ahead.

February Job Openings and April Consumer Sentiment

KEY DATA: Openings: -176,000; Hires: -67,000; Quits: +19,000/ Sentiment: -3.6 points

IN A NUTSHELL: “The labor market may be strong, but it does have its ups and downs.”

WHAT IT MEANS: The disappointing, but not overly surprising March jobs numbers raised some questions about whether economic growth has moderated recently. Adding a little uncertainty to the situation was the report on job openings and labor turnover, the so-called JOLTS report. This was one of past Fed Chair Yellen’s favorite releases, but it is not clear if current Chair Powell shares the same view. Regardless, job openings shrank in February. Reductions in restaurant, construction and wholesale trade more than offset expanding need for workers in finance and local government. Hiring moderated as well. Now that may seem weird given the huge number of jobs added in the monthly payroll report, but the two don’t have to work in concert because total payrolls are the difference between total new hiring and job reductions. Regardless, for me, the most important number is the quit rate, which reflects the willingness of workers to leave their jobs. While the number of people willingly leaving positions rose, when adjusted for total employment, the quit rate remained constant. Thus, the churn that in the past would force firms to bid for labor is still not rising sharply.

The University of Michigan’s Consumer Sentiment Index moderated in early April, which is hardly a surprise. As noted in the report, a fairly significant proportion of the respondents mentioned the tariff/trade war talk and it doesn’t look as if they think it will be a positive for the economy. Views on current conditions and future activity were both down, reflecting the uncertainty. Finally, it looks as if the index may have peaked and is on a downward trend. Over the year, the sentiment index is and its components are either barely up, or in the case of expectations, actually down. That is not good news for future consumer demand,.

MARKETS AND FED POLICY IMPLICATIONS: While the JOLTS report doesn’t say that labor market conditions are firming, the level of most of the components indicates that conditions remain extremely tight. Though a sentiment decline that is the result of political issue may not have a lasting impact on the economy, with consumer debt levels high and the savings rate low, weakening consumer confidence could affect spending more than normal. The surge in household confidence helped maintain consumer spending and added to the willingness to take on debt. Sentiment is still high, but a continued softening could cause growth to slow. Meanwhile, back in Washington, who knows what will happen next. Really, re-entering the TPP? Wasn’t it supposed to be a total disaster? Coincidentally, at a client meeting on Wednesday, I mentioned that the real purpose of TPP was to isolate China and force it to make concessions. I thought it was a better strategy, even given the faults in the agreement, than tariffs and trade wars. I had no idea that Trump would ask his economic advisor and trade rep the next day to look into possibly joining TPP. But now that he did, maybe we can look at the agreement through less political lenses and see it for its strengths, not just its weaknesses.

Linking the Economic Environment to Your Business Strategy